This article is about the gambling game. For the variant of Hearts called Black Jack, see Black Jack (Hearts). For the shedding-type card game sometimes called Black Jack, see Black Jack (Switch). For other uses, see Black Jack.Blackjack

A 21 example, consisting of an Ace and a 10-valued cardAlternative namesTwenty-OneTypeComparingPlayers2+, usually 2–7Skills requiredProbabilityCards52 to 416 (one to eight 52-card decks)DeckFrenchPlayClockwiseRandom chanceHighPontoon, Twenty-One, Siebzehn und Vier, Vingt-et-Un

Blackjack (formerly Black Jack and Vingt-Un) is a casino banking game.[1]: 342  The most widely played casino banking game in the world, it uses decks of 52 cards and descends from a dunia family of casino banking games known as Twenty-One. This family of card games also includes the British game of Pontoon and the European game, Vingt-et-Un.[2] Blackjack players do not compete against each other. The game is a comparing card game where each player competes against the dealer.History[edit]

Blackjack’s immediate precursor was the English version of twenty-one called Vingt-Un, a game of unknown (but probably Spanish) provenance. The first written reference is found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes. Cervantes was a gambler, and the protagonists of his “Rinconete y Cortadillo”, from Novelas Ejemplares, are card cheats in Seville. They are proficient at cheating at veintiuna (Spanish for “twenty-one”) and state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the ace values 1 or 11. The game is played with the Spanish baraja deck.

“Rinconete y Cortadillo” was written between 1601 and 1602, implying that ventiuna was played in Castile since the beginning of the 17th century or earlier. Later references to this game are found in France and Spain.[3]

The first record of the game in France occurs in 1768 and in Britain during the 1770s and 1780s, but the first rules appear in Britain in 1800 under the name of Vingt-Un.[6] Twenty-One, still known then as Vingt-Un, appeared in the United States in the early 1800s. The first American rules were an 1825 reprint of the 1800 English rules. English Vingt-Un later developed into an American variant in its own right which was renamed blackjack around 1899.

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According to popular myth, when Vingt-Un (“Twenty-One”) was introduced into the United States (in the early 1800s, during the First World War, or in the 1930s, depending on the source), gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players’ interest. One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player’s hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack (either the jack of clubs or the jack of spades). This hand was called a “blackjack”, and the name stuck even after the ten-to-one insentif was withdrawn.

French card historian Thierry Depaulis debunks this story, showing that prospectors during the Klondike Gold Rush (1896–99) gave the name blackjack to the game of American Vingt-Un, the bonus being the usual ace and any 10-point card. Since ‘blackjack’ also refers to the mineral zincblende, which was often associated with gold or silver deposits, he suggests that the mineral name was transferred by prospectors to the top insentif hand. He was unable to find any historical evidence for a special insentif for having the combination of an ace with a black jack.

In September 1956, Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel, and James McDermott published a paper Situs Slot Online Terpercaya titled The Optimum Strategy in Blackjack in the Journal of the American Statistical Association.[10], the first mathematically sound optimal blackjack strategy. This paper became the foundation of future efforts to beat blackjack. Ed Thorp used Baldwin’s hand calculations to verify the basic strategy and later published (in 1963) Beat the Dealer.[11]Rules of play at casinos[edit]

At a blackjack table, the dealer faces five to nine playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard 52-card decks are shuffled together. To start each round, players place bets in the “betting box” at each position. In jurisdictions allowing back betting, up to three players can be at each position. The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box controls the position, and the dealer consults the controlling player for playing decisions; the other bettors “play behind”. A player can usually control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a Situs Slot Online single table, but an individual cannot play on more than one table at a time or place multiple bets within a single box. In many U.S. casinos, players are limited to playing one to three positions at a table.

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The dealer deals from their left (“first base”) to their far right (“third base”). Each box gets an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it. The dealer’s hand gets its first card face up, and, in “hole card” games, immediately gets a second card face down (the hole card), which the dealer peeks at but only reveals when it makes the dealer’s hand a blackjack. Hole card games are sometimes played on tables with a small mirror or electronic sensor used to peek securely at the hole card. In European casinos, “no hole card” games are prevalent; the dealer’s second card is not drawn until the players have played their hands.

Dealers deal the cards from one or two handheld decks, from a dealer’s shoe, or from a shuffling machine. Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer’s left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play. The players’ initial cards may be dealt face up or face down (more common in single-deck games).

The object of the game is to win money by creating card totals higher than those of the dealer’s hand but not exceeding 21, or by stopping at a total in the hope that dealer will bust. On their turn, players choose to “hit” (take a card), “stand” (end their turn and stop without taking a card), “double” (double their wager, take a single card, and finish), “split” (if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands), or “surrender” (give up a half-bet and retire from the game).

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Number cards count as their number, the jack, queen, and king (“face cards” or “pictures”) count as 10, and aces count as either 1 or 11 according to the player’s choice. If the total exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it immediately lose.

After the boxes have finished playing, the dealer’s hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand achieves a total of 17 or higher (a dealer total of 17 including an ace valued as 11, also known as a “soft 17”, must be drawn to in some games and must stand in others). The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders. If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win. If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer’s and loses if it is lower.

A player total of 21 on the first two cards is a “natural” or “blackjack,” and the player wins immediately unless dealer also has one, in which case the hand ties. In the case of a tie (“push” or “standoff”), bets are returned without adjustment. But a blackjack beats any hand that is not a blackjack, even one with a value of 21.

Wins are paid out at even money, except for player blackjacks, which are traditionally paid out at tiga to 2 odds. Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than tiga:2. This is common in single-deck blackjack games.[12]

Blackjack games usually offer a side bet called insurance, which may be placed when the dealer’s face up card is an ace. Additional side bets, such as “Dealer Match” which pays when the player’s cards match the dealer’s up card, are also sometimes available.Player decisions[edit]